He is also said to have sent an expedition to discover the causes of the flooding of the Nile. However, there is clearly a hint of wishful thinking underlying many of these modern perspectives. In summer 324 Alexander attempted to solve another problem, that of the wandering mercenaries, of whom there were thousands in Asia and Greece, many of them political exiles from their own cities. Image copyright Greek culture ministry Image caption Bones were found of a woman in her 60s And earlier this year bones were recovered at the site that belonged to at least five individuals, including an elderly woman, a newborn child and two men, one of whom had been stabbed. The tyrants were expelled and in contrast to Macedonian policy in Greece were installed.
The first level was decorated with two hundred and forty ships with golden prows, each of these adorned with armed figures with red banners filling the spaces between. Plutarch remarks of Alexander's kindness toward his royal captives, but never mentions any such encounter. Its hot, and the devotion between characters is evident and simply moving. When he died in Ecbatana, Alexander suffered a complete mental breakdown, refusing to eat or drink for days. Hephaestion alone was allowed to know the secrets in Alexander's letters. All the savage in Alexander was unchained: he passed from paroxysm to paroxysm of emotion, at one moment abased in utter despair, at another seeking to fulfil his soul in strenuous cruelty.
They traveled, fought in battlefields and experienced many adventures together. There are, however, at least a couple of problems with this argument. He also dispatched Heracleides, an officer, to explore the Hyrcanian i. But hold your judgement for a moment and consider how this scenario may help resolve some of the lingering discrepancies in how their relationship was reported. Now a member of court life, it is possible that the two future conquerors would have met around this time. When Alexander openly embraced the comparison of he and Hephaestion to Achilles and Patrolcus, as they may have done at ruins at Troy, it sent a message that they too were more than just friends - or so the logic goes.
Consolidation of the empire Alexander now proceeded farther with the policy of replacing senior officials and executing governors on which he had already embarked before leaving India. The only link between the many units that went to make up an empire more than that of the , and far larger, was his own person; and his death came before he could tackle this problem. Alexander's father, Philip of Macedon, had male lovers and also many wives, a problem when half-brothers would fight to the death over the throne. But it's debatable by virtually any standard. He allegedly took many actions while trying to cope with Hepheastion's death. In the context of the nature of their relationship however, one stands out as remarkable.
I recently talked to a few Hephaestion experts about his relationship with Alexander the Great in. Alexander the Great, Hephaistion, and the Nature of Their Relationship. Alexander married a princess from a faraway mountain kingdom of Asia, but it's unclear if he loved her because their only child was born much later. In November 332 he reached. In his letter to the governor, Cleomenes, Alexander promises to pardon him of his past crimes if he successfully builds and maintains the shrines to Hephaestion. His expedition and his own personal interest in scientific investigation brought many advances in the knowledge of and. His body, diverted to Egypt by , the later king, was eventually placed in a golden coffin in.
Issue 1: Ancient Macedon and homosexuality by Pennsylvania State University professor Jeanne Reames, titled , gives a careful treatment to this mystery. Arrian discreetly draws no conclusions from this. In previous blog posts, I have summarized the views of these sources as it relates to their relationship. By the time of the advance into India, after the deaths of senior generals from the older generation, there had been worrying instances among senior officers of their own generation of treachery, a lack of sympathy with Alexander's aims of further integration of Persians into the army, and of sheer incompetence. The subject matter suggests that this took place while they were in Egypt. He was not just a 'barbarian' Persian but also a eunuch.
Moreover his marriages were designed to further a policy of orientalisation, the playing down of an exclusive Hellenism and the promotion of Graeco-oriental political and cultural mix. There's a new novel about Alexander coming out; for my review and correspondence with the publicist! Normally, this was only done on the death of the Great King himself. To my knowledge, the key contemporary biographers of Alexander do not mention any sexual or romantic relations between the pair. But I guess it's fun to speculate nonetheless. The answer to the question of what was between Alexander and Hephaestion remains buried in their graves.
You can also see more Kindle MatchBook titles or look up all of your Kindle MatchBook titles. He asked the oracles if Hephaestion was a god back then people could become gods by achievement and was told that Hephaestion was indeed a hero, a lesser type of god. His name was Bagoas and he was a Persian eunuch. Already in his lifetime the subject of fabulous stories, he later became the hero of a bearing only the sketchiest resemblance to his historical career. After taking modern Jubayl and Arabic Ṣaydā , he met with a check at , where he was refused entry into the island city.
Shortly afterward, father and son were and Alexander returned, but his position as heir was jeopardized. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Aristocracy. On the Hyphasis he erected 12 altars to the 12 Olympian gods, and on the Hydaspes he built a fleet of 800 to 1,000 ships. You can die young, and yet conquer the world. By the time Arrian was writing, the Greeks and Romans believed Achilles and Patroclus had been lovers whether or not Homer meant to imply this is another question. Moreover, he needed the wealth of if he was to maintain the army built by Philip and pay off the 500 talents he owed. Head of Hephaistion sculpted in marble.
Clearly, Alexander had no fear that Hephaestion would ever betray him. Was Alexander the Great gay? To my knowledge, the key contemporary biographers of Alexander do not mention any sexual or romantic relations between the pair. The Iranian satraps were perhaps not efficient, for, out of 18, 10 were removed or executed—with what it is no longer possible to say. His use of was so effective that he rarely had to fall back upon his to deliver the crushing blow. At Babylon funeral games were held in Hephaestion's honour. More warlike places such as Sparta and Macedon had slightly different expectations about expressing same-sex desire. The blood of Olympias ran hotly in the veins of her son beneath that crust with which ambition and its fulfillment had overlaid him.