Ultimately, the annulus breaks and the loosened operculum is thrown away leaving the peristome teeth exposed Fig. The cauloid axis0 is aerial, erect, slender and monopodially branched. Here, sporophyte lives as semi- parasite. Filamentous, straplike, or membranous, it grows along the soil surface. Vegetative reproduction Vegetative reproduction takes place by the following methods Figure 2. The outer layer is the epidermis. .
It has a basal swollen part called venter, and elongated neck. The peripheral cells divide to form jacket initials which divide to form jacket layers around the venter and neck. The prothallus contains both archegonia and antheridia. The cells external to third ring divide periclinally to separate fourth and fifth rings. The venter contains a ventral canal cell and an egg. The axial cell divides to form primary cover cell and central cell which divides to form primary canal cell which give rise to neck canal cells, and venter cell.
It enters into it and fertilizes the egg to form the zygote. A protonema is differentiated into two kinds of branches; chloronema which grow along the surface of the substratum or into the air; and rhizoids which penetrate the substratum. These cells are covered with epidermis. In Baruch Rinkevich; Valeria Matranga. In case of Funaria, gametophytic protonema may develop from any unspecialised cells of the sporophyte. In which fragments are formed and each fragment grows into new protonema, buds and give rise to gametophores.
Buds develop on the caulonema filaments which give rise to gametophores. The terminal cell of the filament differentiates into apical cell. These hyphae obtain food and nutrients from the body of other organisms to grow and fertilize. Apical cell itself becomes an axial cell. It causes a pressure that ruptures its inner wall.
Cortex is composed Of many layers of thin-walled cells. Its cells divide and mature into outer spore sac. They lack true roots, stem or leaves. It is surrounded by cluster of leaves called perigonial leaves. Each of these fragments develop into matured, fully grown individuals that are identical to their parents The splitting may or may not be intentional — it may or may not occur due to man-made or natural damage by the environment or predators. Larger fragments of the thallus may break away when the lichen dries or due to mechanical disturbances see the section on. The sex organs, antheridia and archegonia develop at the apices of separate erect branches.
They produce two apical cells. Spore is developed into protonema containing buds and finally, each bud can develop into new gametophytic plant body. They are characterized by the presence of oblique septa. The young capsule is green. Reproduction in Gametophyte Funaria gametophyte reproduces by vegetative and sexual reproductions.
Spore sac is a barrel shaped structure open at both the ends. The sex organs, antheridia and archegonia develop at the apices of seprate erect branches called gametophores. An young gametophyte comprises of leafy stem, rhizoids arid protonema. The terminal cell of the filament differentiates into apical cell. It gives rise to neck canal cells and venter cell. It is formed of parenchyma cells. The outer layer is called epidermic which contains small pores called stomata for gasses exchange.
Antheridia are intermingled with paraphyses. The whole capsule body bends easily. It carries capsule at its apex. Therefore, these are more vulnerable to changing environments. Fig Funarla plant showing male and female branches Funaria reproduces both by vegetative and sexual methods. Female reproductive organ archegonium is developed into groups at the apex of the female branch. It is prostrate, filamentous alga like ephemeral structure.