No change was effected in the actual administration of the country. Therefore from 1858 to 1919 management and regulation of civil services was done by the Indian Civil Services Commissioner. Une interdiction générale ne peut être imposée que lorsque l'état d'urgence national est décrété et que les droits fondamentaux sont abrogés Loi sur la défense de l'Inde et Règles afférentes Defence of India Act and Rules thereof. The secretary of was a member of the British cabinet and was responsible ultimately to the British Parliament. There was a provision of creation of an Indian Civil Service under the control of the Secretary of State.
However, overall majority of non-elected members remained intact. There were, moreover, two turbulent national mainstreams flowing beneath the deceptively placid official surface of British administration: the larger, headed by the Indian National Congress, which led eventually to the birth of India, and the smaller Muslim one, which acquired its organizational skeleton with the founding of the in 1906 and led to the creation of. Viscount Ennismore was the first and last Secretary of Burma, as Burma got independence in 1948. The viceroy, governed 1869—72 , met to confer with Shīr ʿAlī at in 1869 and, though reaffirming Anglo-Afghan friendship, resisted all requests by the emir for more permanent and practical support for his still precarious regime. The Governor-General received the title of Viceroy.
He also could appoint Lt. The supreme body in Britain was the British parliament to which the British government was responsible. The Council was made to assist him but only had an advisory role. That envoy hoped to establish a French bank in Upper Burma to finance the construction of a railway and the general commercial development of the kingdom, but his plans were thwarted. Thus, the system of 'Double Government' introduced by Pitt's India of 1784 was finally abolished of the 15 members of the Council of the Secretary of State, 8 were to be appointed by the Crown and 7 by the Court of Directors. It was to be consisted of 15 members, 7 of them were to be elected by the Court of Directors and the rest of 8 members were to be appointed by the Crown. Another defect pointed out was the cumbrous, complex and irrational nature of the system of Double Government.
Reacting to this, the British Government brought the Indian Council Bill 1909. As a result, though the population of the subcontinent increased dramatically from about 200 million in 1872 the year of the first almost universal census to more than 319 million in 1921, the population may have declined slightly between 1895 and 1905. It was because of the which ended the rule of Princely state. Millions of peasants weaned from grain production now found themselves riding the boom-and-bust of a world-market economy. Palmerston's Bill went through the second reading, but before it could become law the ministry changed and Palmerston was thrown out. Government of India Act 1935 Government of India Act 1935 was passed by British Parliament in August 1935. The electoral system that was introduced contained two divisions of electorates; they are General electorates and special electorates.
The door was thus left open for the Crown to step in any time and take over the administration from the hands of the Company. This act provided that India was to be governed directly and in the name of the Crown. Indian resources were also utilized to serve the interests of the British Empire in other parts of the world and in costly wars against other countries. A minister of the British , called the secretary of , was made responsible for the of India. At this time, Victoria was the queen of Britain.
The council became an advisory body in India affairs. Secretary of State of India was empowered to preside at the meetings of the Indian Council. Jiddu Krishnamurti and Annie Besant, 1926. The first Secretary of State was Charles Wood. So, now the major demand of moderate leaders was Indianisation of higher services. The Crown was empowered to appoint a Governor-General and the Governors of the Presidencies. The principle of Doctrine of Lapse was withdrawn, liberty was given to Indian rulers subject to British suzerainty and it also opened some door for Indians in Government services.
The viceroy, governed 1899—1905 , however, recognized the impracticality of trying to administer the turbulent frontier region as part of the large Punjab province. . He was also authorised to constitute special committees of his Council. The reforms of 1909 was infect framed to confuse moderate nationalists, to divide the nationalist ranks and to check the growth of unity among Indians and such the reforms of 1909 afforded no answer to the Indian political problems. India was to be governed in the Queen's name. Complete freedom of religion was ensured and gradual participation in the administration of the country was also proclaimed.
In August 1858, the British parliament passed an act that set an end to the rule of the company. It constituted the secretary of -in-council as a body corporate, capable of suing and being sued in India and in England. Only a class of citizen was qualified for voting which was almost a minority to the total population of each electorate. As the British was responsible to parliament, the supreme body for India also was the British parliament. On its last day, the Congress passed resolutions, embodying the political and economic demands of its members, that served thereafter as public petitions to government for the redress of grievances. Government of India Act of 1858 On 2, 1858, less than a month after Canning proclaimed the victory of British arms, passed the , transferring British power over India from the , whose was primarily blamed for the mutiny, to the crown. The office of secretary of state was vested with complete authority and control over Indian administration, thus he was now the political head of the India.
The rich of began to be mined during that period to help power the imported British locomotives, and coal production jumped from roughly 500,000 tons in 1868 to some 6,000,000 tons in 1900 and more than 20,000,000 tons by 1920. It established a 15-member Council of India to assist the secretary of for India. This order of the Government of India brought the Nation into a debate concerning reservation policy of India. This was also one of the many factors of failure of. For all the communications between Britain and India, the Secretary of State became the real channel. Provincial roots of Indian , however, may be traced to the beginning of the era of crown rule in Bombay, Bengal, and Madras.
Mindon, noted for the Fifth Buddhist Council at Mandalay in 1871 the first such council in some 1,900 years , was succeeded by a younger son, , who in February 1879 celebrated his ascendancy to the throne by having 80 siblings massacred. This act provided that India was to be governed directly and in the name of the crown. We will see in detail about all the Government of India Acts. Thus, in 1901 he created a new containing some 40,000 square miles about 100,000 square km of trans-Indus and tribal borderland territory under a British chief commissioner responsible directly to the viceroy. The main rules under which India was governed before the passing of the Act of 1958 were already those of the British parliament.