Rather that training people in a particular vocational or professional skill as the sophists claimed was necessary, Socrates argued that a genuine education aimed to cultivate the knowledge that every person needed as a human being. Plato: Founder of Western Idealism A. Idealism as a Philosophy of Education 1. In this novel Rousseau focuses on the private education of the boy Shahid, 2000. So the educator by his own efforts assist the educand,who is developing according to the laws of his nature to attain levels that would otherwise be denied to him. In this way, the achievements of each generation are transmitted to the succeeding generation.
The nineteenth-century school administrator William Torrey Harris 1835-1909 used Hegelian Idealism as a philosophical rationale for school organization and curriculum. Mind is ultimately spiritual, not materialistic. Ethical conduct grows out of the permanent aspects of a social and cultural tradition that in reality is the wisdom of the past functioning in the present. From these fundamental questions, Plato moved into the axiological dimension by asking, What is the relationship between knowledge and the proper conduct of human life in terms of ethical, moral and aesthetic behavior? Plato thought that humans could be improved from within, by correcting their thoughts and discovering knowledge already there since birth. Idealism focuses on reasoning and how a person can bring knowledge up from inside of himself.
Hence, development of social qualities is very essential for self-realization as it expresses itself in the form of love, sympathy, fellow-feeling and co-operation for the good of all and discrimination among human beings on any basis of caste, creed, sex, race or status etc. Idealism is a comprehensive world view that embraces many strains of thought; it i s so comprehensive that it includes among its adherents those who have stressed personal liberation and self-definition as well as those who have argued for the creation of an organic society in which persons are primarily identified as exercising a specific role in the total state system. The physical world is just an image of the reality. They believe that impressionistic discipline is the best type of discipline. They emphasize the importance of moral and spiritual education and points out the values of humanities, social sciences, art and literature. The philosopher-king had the important assignment of determining the kind of education a person should have for his or her future role in the state.
The philosopher-kings, the supreme rulers of the political state, were highly educated intellectuals who, after a long period of training in philosophy and dialectic, had attained a vision of the truth. The second method that suits idealism the most is the Socratic Method in which the teacher involves the students in learning activities. In all, we can say that idealistic approach to education has its own merits and shortcomings. On one hand idealist emphasize on sympathetic control on undesirable activities but on the other hand it grants regulated liberty for spiritual development. According to them development of personality means achievement of perfections of an individual which can be also called as self-realization of self which can be achieved through the society through love,sympathy,fellow feeling, no discrimination on the basis of caste,creed,race etc.
Although the teacher should be selected for competency in both subject matter and pedagogy, he or she should be an aesthetic person who is worthy of imitation by students. This lays down that the heart of reality is to be found in thought or reason. A teacher is an ideal person to be emulated by this pupil. Reason is absolute; in fact it is the absolute. The subjective individual mind can know other minds and can understand them. Friedrich Froebel 1782-1852 , the founder of the kindergarten, created a method of early childhood education based on Idealist philosophy. When the mind's eye rests on objects illuminated by truth and reality, it understands and comprehends them, and functions intelligently; but when it turns to the twilight world of change and decay, it can only form opinions, its vision is confused and its beliefs shifting, and it seems to lack intelligence.
Objects are common Slide 30: Representationalism is the philosophical position that the world we see in conscious experience is not the real world itself, but merely a miniature virtual-reality replica of that world in an internal representation. It was probably through cultural interactions between East and West that Idealist concepts found their way into Western thought. This philosophy was the progenitor of the scientific method, a system of inquiry relying on objective facts. Protagoras, which examined the issue of virtue; 2. In the past, this kind of ethical development was called character formation. Movements in Philosophy Relevant inEducation Ozmon and Craver 2008 a.
Symbols refer to or point to concepts. Development of intelligence and rationality To cultivate Truth,Beauty,Go odness Preparation for a holy lifeAims of Education Self Exhaltation:Idealist lay great stress on the exhaltation of the human personality i. Thus, the grandeur and the worth of human life at its best are emphasized by Idealism. As a highly intellectual process, learning is the recalling of and the working with ideas. Healthy mind is found in healthy baby only.
To him the physical world is the manifestation of some great spirit behind it. The class is examining the moral dilemma that Huck encounters when he must either follow the law of the state or the higher law of his conscience specifically, Huck must decide if he should surrender the escaped slave Jim to the authorities for return to his slave master, or if he should help Jim escape to a free state. It is the task of the school to preserve past knowledge, skill, and discipline; it prepares the children for the future by transmitting the cultural heritage in a deliberate fashion by way of systematically ordered, sequential, and cumulative curriculum. . The education is highly structured and one of the best examples of this is the liberal arts education. Like truth itself, a genuine education is also universal and timeless. Neo-Realism Knowledge is identified with objects Slide 32: Critical realism is a philosophical view of knowledge.
Education is a process of unfolding and developing that which is a potential in the human person. Although the language may seem vague or poetical, the Macrocosm can be said to be thought thinking, contemplation contemplating, and will willing. This may be called Universal Consciousness or Divinity. Idealistic philosophy takes many and varied forms, but the postulate underlying all this is that mind or spirit is the essential world stuff, that the true reality is a mental character. A holy life will naturally lead the child to spiritual development and self realization.
In explaining the universe, Idealism posits ultimate reality solely in the mind and argues that the universe is an expression of a highly generalized intelligence and will. The universe is viewed as essentially nonmaterial in its ultimate nature. The relationships of the book to the history of the Dred Scott decision and the fugitive slave law should also be made clear. Even in modern times when people are not inclined towards accepting any dogmatic creed or philosophy, idealism has certain attractions which appeal to the human mind and thereby exercise a great influence on human thinking. The teacher must be prepared to ask leading questions about crucial human concerns. The teacher should embody values, love students and be and exciting and enthusiastic person. The teaching-learning process should assist students to realize fully the potentialities inherent in their human nature.