Among other structures, there is a Buddhist vihara with parts of it decorated using moulded bricks and stucco. Besides, the peasants there were landless labourers, carpenters, gold-smiths, hunters and fishermen. Polygamy was practiced, though on a limited scale. The Hathikumbha inscription of Kharavela of Kalinga also mentions about Tamil kingdoms. Bana wrote Harshacharita or the Life of Harsha. In the Sangam literature, the Tamil language had reached a level of maturity and began to serve as a powerful and elegant medium of literary expression. Sites bearing natural reserves of semi-precious stones such as beryls, sapphire and quartz are located in the vicinity of Kodumanal.
So most of the Sangam literature also must have been produced during this period. More furnaces were discovered at the same site with burnt clay pieces with rectangular holes. See also: By far, the most important source of ancient Tamil history is the corpus of Tamil poems, referred to as , generally dated from the last centuries of the pre-Christian era to the early centuries of the Christian era. Sivaga Sindamani, written by Tiruttakkadevar a Jaina ascetic, is the story of Sivaga or Jivaka Period of Sangam literature: The earliest script that the Tamils used was the Brahmi script. The most important among these works is Tirukkural authored by Thiruvalluvar, the tamil great poet and philosopher. It includes medicine, dance, music, fighting, etc. The most famous inscriptions of India are the huge inscriptions of Asoka.
It is the oldest surviving Tamil text. Nilakanta Sastri, the Sangam literature which combines idealism with realism and classic grace with indigenous industry and strength is rightly regarded as constituting the Augustan age of Tamil literature. The inhabited southern and eastern Tamil Nadu, and northern Sri Lanka, while the Kadambars settled in central Tamil Nadu first and later moved to western. In the 7th century Chera, Chola and Pandiya re-emerged and came to power defeating the Kalabhras. It had its capital at Madurai. Silk, which was supplied by Indian merchants to the Roman Empire, was considered so important that the Roman emperor Aurelian declared it to be worth its weight in gold. Even more recent arts were also linked to it.
They also performed in kooththu alongside other artists. Weaving, ship-building, metal working, carpentry, rope-making, ornament-making, making of ivory products, tanning etc were some of the handicrafts, which were widely practiced. For example, taste is classified into six groups, and foods are classified as hot or cold. Sati system was prevailing in the Sangam age. It seems that in the middle of the second century B. However compared to the number of agricultural tools that were buried, those meant for fighting and hunting is larger in number.
Period of Sangam Literature The chronology of the Sangam literature is still a disputed topic among the scholars. The village was the fundamental unit of administration which was administered by local assemblies called manrams. The forest tribal were very poor. The Greek ambassador Megasthenes stayed in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and wrote his famous work Indika. The text which was published during that conference is called Agathiyam. The study of inscriptions is called epigraphy.
Secular Literature: There are many kinds of secular or non-religious literature. He mentions the port of Naura Cannanore Tyndis Tondi , Muzuris Musiri, Cranganore , and Nelcynda as the leading ones on the west coast. Near shore excavations yielded a brick structure and a few terracotta ring wells. Nelcynda is distant from Muziris by river and sea about five hundred stadia, and is of another Kingdom, the Pandian. Text in the last Tamil Sangam has reference to Jainism and Buddhism. A series of coins without a legend but with a horse as the principal motif on the obverse have been assigned to the Malayaman chieftains, because of the river symbol on the obverse. It is several thousand li to the southeast of Northern India.
Coins issued by the Tamil kings of this age have been recovered from river beds and urban centers of their kingdoms. As that emperor himself proclaimed, he got his edicts engraved on stone so that they might last long. The famous Greek traveler c. Each individual poem has generally attached to it a colophon on the authorship and subject matter of the poem, the name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found. It has been suggested that was first established as a settlement c. It was generally believed that the Satavahanas were the first indigenous monarchs to issue silver portrait coins. Therefore, the most probable date of the Sangam literature has been fixed between the third century B.
Aathi Irai min means the star of the God Siva on the Bull Nandi. The Roman need for spices could not be met entirely by local supply; this brought Indian traders into contact with south-east Asia. The main exports were: pepper, pearls, ivory, silk, spike-nard, malabathrum, diamonds, saffron, precious stone and tortoise shell. Later various subsects were formed based on more specific professions in each of the five landscapes Kurinji, Mullai, Marutam, Neithal and Palai. Such an observation has been made of coins assigned to the of , which are thought to be another inspiration for the Chera coins. Literacy source works like Tolkappiyan, Ettuthogai, Ettuhogal and Pattuppattu provide valuable information to know the history of the Sangam Age.