Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. Before they were done, their partnership would cut quite a swath across the American political and social landscape. By 1954, the fervor had died down and many actors and writers were able to return to work. Such ideas were not totally unfounded. McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. It required the registration of Communist organizations with the and established the to investigate possible Communist-action and Communist-front organizations so they could be required to register.
The Popular Front period ended abruptly in August 1939, when the Soviet and German leaders signed a nonaggression pact. The film was made by those blacklisted: producer and director ; writer ; actors , , , , , and. With a Republican in the White House as a result of the 1952 election, the partisan motivation for attacking the administration as soft on communism diminished. Local vigilance committees pulled suspect books off library shelves and burned them. Notwithstanding McCarthy's allegations, the Army, in April 1954, brought a federal suit against McCarthy.
In 1951, twenty-three other leaders of the party were indicted, including , a founding member of the. The Documents Telegram from Senator Joseph McCarthy to President Harry S. Nearly 3,000 seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this program alone. During this period, more than 1,000 men and women were fired for suspected homosexuality from the State Department alone—a far greater number than were dismissed for their membership in the Communist party. Because so many groups and individuals participated in the second Red Scare in one role or another, manuscript and oral-history collections in archives all over the country hold relevant material.
Among the members were well known actors Katherine Hepburn, Lauren Bacall, Humphrey Bogart, Judy Garland, Frank Sinatra and Groucho Marx. Among those few were comedian , and journalist , whose strong criticisms of McCarthy are often cited as playing an important role in his eventual removal from power. Although espionage trials and congressional hearings were the most-sensational manifestations of McCarthyism, loyalty tests for employment directly affected many more people. Mitchell Palmer and Rising Justice Department star J. As with other loyalty-security reviews of McCarthyism, the identities of any accusers and even the nature of any accusations were typically kept secret from the accused. We will not walk in fear, one of another.
Portrait of Governor Frank J. State Department, the second Red Scare predated and outlasted McCarthy, and its machinery far exceeded the reach of a single maverick politician. Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. The most famous were able to successfully fight off such attacks but Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television, ruined or harmed many people's careers. In judicial affairs, for example, support for free speech and other civil liberties eroded significantly.
Despite this, Lorwin was still indicted before the State Department for perjury. This would eventually extend beyond the State Department towards schools and universities, teachers being required to swear loyalty oaths and reading lists going under scrutiny. Of the more than 9,300 employees who were cleared after full investigation under the 1947 standard, for example, at least 2,756 saw their cases reopened under the 1951 standard. Many were convicted on the basis of testimony that was later admitted to be false. In a speech in February 1950, Senator McCarthy presented an alleged list of members of the working in the State Department, which attracted press attention. This popular predisposition in turn has been easier for powerful interests to exploit in the American context because of the absence of a parliamentary system which elsewhere produced a larger number of political parties as well as stronger party discipline and of a strong civil service bureaucracy.
These and other local- and state-level studies demonstrate that the intensity of Red Scare politics was not a simple function of the strength of the Communist threat. Red Scare The term Red Scare is used to describe periods of extreme anti-communism in the United States. The Army-McCarthy hearings began when the Army formally accused McCarthy of providing preferential treatment to one of his former aides who had become a serviceman. See Jennifer Luff, Commonsense Anti-communism: Labor and Civil Liberties between the World Wars Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012 ; Ruotsila, British and American Anti-communism; and Judy Kutulas, The American Civil Liberties Union and the Making of Modern Liberalism, 1930—1960 Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. Newspapers and employers too began to switch sides. This list was first made public in 1948, when it included 78 items. McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the.
Public universities revived mandatory loyalty oaths. In December, the United States Senate voted in favor of McCarthy's censure 67 to 22. Joseph McCarthy and the Rise of McCarthyism All of these factors combined to create an atmosphere of fear and dread, which proved a ripe environment for the rise of a staunch anticommunist like Joseph McCarthy. So, during a speech at the Wheeling, West Virginia, Republican Ladies' Auxiliary Club Lincoln's Birthday Dinner in February 1950, the junior Senator from Wisconsin whipped up the crowd when he dramatically waved a sheet of blank typewriter paper over his head and intoned that thereon he held the names of 205 known Reds currently working inside Truman's State Department. In 1953, the Ohio General Assembly, with Governor Frank Lausche's approval, extended the Ohio Un-American Activities Committee's existence.
The End Of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. . His witch hunt began at the federal level. Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947—1954. In his concluding comment, Murrow said: We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. Red Scare or Red Menace? Books such as and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals.