How do we acquire moral and axiological knowledge? Ross's major innovation is that these principles state prima facie rather than absolute obligations. William David Ross wurde in der Hafenstadt im Norden Schottlands geboren. Ross remained at Oxford for nearly 50 years, serving on the faculty and in various administrative positions, including Provost of Oriel College from 1929 to 1947 and Vice-Chancellor of the University from 1941 to 1944. He was in particular impressed with Aristotle's methodology. This is hard to accept.
Anne agrees to give him the money. Instead, perhaps the better strategy is to suggest that they can capture the importance of promise keeping to common-sense morality by holding that promise keeping is intrinsically valuable or at least that promise breaking is intrinsically evil Johnson 1953, 1959; Ewing 1957, 1959; Brennan 1989; Shaver 2011. Some works on Ross are J. But if his endorsement of the synthetic a priori truths is one way of securing the standard way of doing moral philosophy, which involves appeal to thought-experiments, intuition, what we think, and so on, it is more difficult to reject. Finally, it really would be contrary to the plain man's view and to reflective thinking to deny that pleasure is a good and that pain is an evil.
However, in the four decades since his death the general estimate of his achievement has altered, and while he is still revered for his accomplishments as a scholar and editor he is now more highly regarded for his vital and original contributions to ethical theory. Ross additionally edited six of the Oxford Classical Texts works, five with revised texts and complete introductions and commentaries, with the last published in 1961. Instead, there are a number of basic moral requirements which cannot be reduced to some more fundamental principle. His Aristotle London, 1923 is mainly expository, each chapter being concerned with a major aspect of Aristotle's work; this is still the best all-round exposition in English. Kant's Ethical Theory: A Commentary on the Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. Ross agrees that some promises are more binding than others, e.
The analogy with mathematics is instructive, for we acquire our moral knowledge in the same way we acquire knowledge of mathematical axioms. After an incredible life of great philosophical endeavour and invaluable service to Oriel College, Oxford University, and to his country, Sir William David Ross died in Cowley Road Hospital, Oxford, on 5th May 1971. The Right and the Good. As Ross conducts it, the main dispute between the two revolves around the issue of whether ideal utilitarians can make sense of the obligation to keep one's promises. But since A is dead when B fulfils the promise no pleasure or satisfaction can be brought into existence for A, implying that B has no obligation by Ross's lights to fulfil the promise. The other main debt acknowledged by Ross is to G. For some ten years it was the center of ethical controversy.
The Right and the Good 1930. According to consequentialist theories, what people ought to do is determined only by whether their actions will bring about the most good. By Kimberly Pavlovich Sir William David Ross 1877-1971 was a British philosopher and scholar born in Thurso, Scotland. Although not part of the original project, this compilation was published as volume 12 of the Oxford series. New York: McMillan and Co, 1908.
Among his many public services were the chairmanships of three government departmental committees 1936 —1937 and of the arbitration tribunal 1942 —1952. After his retirement from academic and public life, Ross continued his lifelong study of philosophy. That our responsibilities are self-evident does not entail that they are obvious to everyone who reflects on them. According to Sir William David Ross, what is the difference between rashness and cowardice? One is reminded of Dr. One main worry is that there is very little agreement in intuitions, and this suggests that there is no fact of the matter as to what has value or what one is responsible for.
But what drives this interpretation of the promise? In his lifetime, Ross was considered a major figure in the study of Aristotle Wiggins 2004. These are relied upon in making decisions about the goodness or badness of a state of affairs all things considered, though there is no sense in which this is deduced from these claims. There again appears to be no responsibility to fulfil the promise. If the only duty is to produce the maximum of good, the question of who is to have the good — whether it is myself, or my benefactor, or a person to whom I have made a promise to confer that good on him, or a mere fellow man to whom I stand in no such special relationship — should make no difference to my having a duty to produce that good. What can you tell us? For the acts we have to choose between, say the telling of the truth or the saying of what is untrue, in some particular circumstances, or the keeping or the breaking of a promise, are completely individual acts, and their rightness or their wrongness will spring from their whole nature, and no element in their nature can safely be abstracted from. The biographical sketch of Aristotle is meager and admittedly may be all that is available and 90% of the book is devoted to a detailed study of Aristotelian philosophy which is extremely tedious to read. Ross's book seems to be more of a key to the original texts, to be read as a supplement to the original texts.
Those dissatisfied with the standard model for doing moral philosophy but who at the same time find themselves attracted to the idea that ethical theories should capture the main elements of common-sense morality do well to consult Ross's unique contribution to moral epistemology. He edited, for a time with J. But the ideal utilitarian may see a weakness here and urge that she can provide an interpretation and that her interpretation and its explanation fits more easily with common-sense morality. He died in Oxford on 25 May 1971. Ethical challenges surface, however, when prima facie duties conflict, as they sometimes do. They can also explain why this is as Ross notes a difficult issue to decide: there are utilitarian reasons on either side.
In any given situation, any number of these prima facie duties may apply. Seine ersten sechs Lebensjahre verbrachte er im Süden. Ross is one of a select number of modern intellectuals who made important and lasting contributions to two different academic fields: in his case, ethics and classical letters. Ross joined the army in 1915. The standard suggestion is that for Ross moral facts are non-natural facts or non-natural properties Stratton-Lake 2002a xxi; Frankena 1963 86—87; 1973 103.
He was educated at the , Edinburgh, and the. This seems to give him what he needs methodologically. What is one to do in such cases? Stratton-Lake 2002a , and he nowhere rules out that moral properties are natural properties. At ThriftBooks, our motto is: Read More, Spend Less. Alternative Title: William David Ross Sir David Ross, in full William David Ross, born April 15, 1877, , Caithness, Scot.