We find significant racial differences in the combination of school and sexual activity, however. Darker colors mean more teenage pregnancies. Household and community income, economic shocks and risky sexual behavior of young adults: evidence from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005. As shown in , coloured youth are ahead of African youth in grade attainment by age 17. Sexual debut, pregnancy, and dropping out are conditional on not having had sex in 2002, not having been pregnant in 2002, and being in school in 2002, respectively.
Studies showed that the rates of pregnancy were higher in some race groups. Die taak van maatskaplike werk ten opsigte van die ongehude moeder as enkelouer. Unpublished master's thesis, University of the Witwatersrand Peltzer, K. Condoms use is highest among African males 83% , but is widespread among the majority of all groups with the notable exception of coloured females 32%. The girls are overjoyed when the test confirms they are virgins.
Furthermore, many supporters of the practice argue that in a country where rape of young girls is prevalent, virginity testing is proving to be a useful method of uncovering sexual abuse on young girls who fear speaking out about it. To begin with, majority of them belong to the low income group. Teenage pregnancy is a very difficult transition that no adolescent should put upon themselves at such a young age. This confirms that the racial differences shown in bivariate relationships above continue to hold when we control for other variables. That almost one in five Kenyan teenage girls is a mother represents not only a huge cost to the health sector, but also a betrayal of potential on a shocking scale. They asked the Department what could be done to prevent learners from dropping out of school. Household shock defined in text.
She was heartened to hear that teen pregnancy was not such a problem as had been thought, but stressed that the cultural and social issues remained and must be addressed. In particular, whites living with their fathers in 2002 were more likely to be successfully followed. The study showed that when young mothers returned to school, the education protected them against falling pregnant a second time soon after the first pregnancy. The money is paid by the father of the child. Given the rapid changes associated with age between age 14 and 20, we control for age with a quadratic function of age in months.
On the one hand, girls who are doing better in school and anticipate good schooling outcomes in the future may be less likely to become sexually active. While a significant fraction of African women are in school after they become sexually active, coloured women tend to spend relatively little time in school after sexual debut. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Pretoria Oz, S. The 2014 Kenya of 2014 that shows girls who have completed secondary education have an average of three children in their lifetimes compared to an average 6. The pattern for coloured women is quite different, with much smaller proportions of women reporting that they have both had a pregnancy and are still in school. We find that teen pregnancy is not entirely inconsistent with continued schooling, especially for African black women. Three years ago, Kenya launched the Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Policy.
The Department warned that it was missing data from some provinces. So I just kept quiet. Since, as we will show below, there is a wide age range in any grade, and since many students repeat grades, it is easier for young African mothers to re-insert themselves into the school environment than it would be in a school system with a sharper alignment of age and grade. These results suggest that the fact that the transition from sexual activity into pregnancy is faster for coloured girls than for African girls is not driven by differences in marriage or cohabitation. For each set of regressions the first row shows the marginal effect of the variable, evaluated at the mean, and the second row shows robust Huber-White standard errors in brackets. At the same time, a significant percentage either does not drop out or returns to school after dropping out, especially among Africans.
For virtually all of them — and statistics say majority are from poor families — it means an end to any dreams of coming out of poverty because they cannot continue with education. We estimate a statistically significant positive effect of a household shock on female sexual debut. Teenage mothers are less likely to receive , often seeking it in the , if at all. The societies we live in now are most affected by the environment we live in. Using information from the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, found that prior school progress measured by temporary school withdrawal and grade repetition are significant predictors of both the likelihood of pregnancy and of dropping out of school after a pregnancy.
If we assume that women who were still pregnant in the 2005 interview had a live birth, then about 95% of all pregnancies become live births for young African and coloured women. One explanation of this association is that success in negotiating sexual initiation and parenthood is more likely to be ensured if other transitions occur prior to sexual debut and parenthood. One of the intriguing results in is that the number of grades completed has a significant positive effect on sexual debut for both males and females. Schooling and early childbearing in urban South Africa. Another Member questioned whether there really was no link between teen pregnancy and the child grants, noting that learners may not reveal the truth, and that experience on the ground had shown that the grants were being accessed, but were not used for the welfare of the child. This is especially true in South Africa, where young people have achieved high levels of school enrollment and grade attainment but where persistent educational inequalities are reflected in high rates of grade repetition and widely varying educational achievement. Age of menarche, standard of education and early adolescent pregnancy.