Theory Y Theory Y managers have an optimistic, positive opinion of their people, and they use a decentralized, participative management style. As a former tester I can assure you that having a strong grasp of this theory will give you at least one correct answer on the exam. Two of these performed the relatively certain task of manufacturing standardized containers on high-speed, automated production lines. However, such an approach is extremely difficult to adopt in service related organizations. Theory Y assumes that people are inherently happy to work , they want to exert themselves and they are motivated to pursue objectives. Which Management style have you worked under in the past? Prevalence Theory X was the predominant management style during the 20 th century. Direct supervision and emphasis on achieving targets may be somewhat suitable for manufacturing-related organizations.
Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of assumptions about workers. Leadership style Autocratic Democratic Direction Constant direction is required. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can do so. People will use work to satisfy their lower needs and seek to satisfy their higher needs during their leisure time. Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion. The objective was to explore more fully how the fit between organization and task was related to successful performance.
When an organization does not respond to this, employees will start looking for possibilities to deploy their skills outside their work. Imposition of decisions on theory Y employees will lead to their dissatisfaction, and this will negatively affect organizational performance. McGregor called this Theory Y. Relations with others: The people at Akron perceived a great deal of similarity among themselves in background, prior work experiences, and approaches for tackling job-related problems. Theory-X assumptions are: 1 most people dislike and will avoid it to the extent possible, therefore 2 they must be continually coerced, controlled, and threatened with to get the work done, and that 3 they have little or no , prefer to avoid , and choose above everything else. Theory X McGregor stated that those employees who are separated into Theory X need to be micromanaged. Although both styles of management can motivate people, the success of each will largely depend on your team's and your organizational objectives.
Even with our limited knowledge, however, there are indications that people will gradually gravitate into organizations that fit their particular personalities. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized. Theory Z also makes assumptions about company culture. We lose money whenever they do. From this reasoning, McGregor proposed an alternative: Theory Y. Solutions Empxtrack offer solutions for talent management.
How does the more formalized and controlling organization affect the motivation of organization members? The answers to these questions will guide their decisions about the design of the management hierarchy, the specificity of job assignments, and the utilization of rewards and control procedures. Less-motivated individuals may also take advantage of this more relaxed working environment by shirking their work. In contrast, in theory, Y, the assumption is that employees do not need much supervision for the completion of the task and also in the accomplishment of organisational objectives. Thus situational management style should be used in order to generate optimum results. One wonders if the idea was not considered strong enough to stand alone with a completely new name. Theory X is a conventional approach to motivation, based on negative assumptions.
There is little delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized. Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. Instead, workable operational theories are developed using a various amount of the assumptions of each theory. For many enterprises, given the new needs of younger employees for more autonomy, and the rapid rates of social and technological change, it may well be that the more participative approach is the most appropriate. These two theories represent the extreme ranges of assumptions.
Your rating is more than welcome or share this article via Social media! Second, although the behavior in the two organizations was different, the result in both cases was effective task performance. In fact, when proper motivations and rewards are in place, employees are not only willing but purposely driven to seek out responsibility and challenges on their own. It's interesting that Ouchi chose to name his model 'Theory Z', which apart from anything else tends to give the impression that it's a Mcgregor idea. Find out how the idea of self-fulfilling prophecies affects employees actions according to Douglas McGregor. Theory X and Theory Y in the Workplace Most managers will likely use a mixture of Theory X and Theory Y. The Theory X manager assumes employees hate the idea of having to go to work and do so only to earn a paycheck and the security it offers. Encouragement and rewards are used rather than control and coercion.
On the other hand, managers use theory Y produces better performance and results and allows people to grow and develop. The soft approach results in a growing desire for greater reward in exchange for diminished work output. For example, the Hartford plant had an egalitarian distribution of influence, perceptions of a low degree of structure, and a more participatory type of supervision. So, it's important to understand how your perceptions of what motivates them can shape your management style. However, one person who seemed to be unafraid of self-inflicted explosions was Douglas McGregor, a behavior management theorist who was heavily influenced by both Abraham Maslow and the. Teamwork, quality circles, and brainstorming sessions are used in theory Y organizations in order to provide platforms for employees to share their ideas and opinions.
Managers are more authoritarian and actively intervene to get things done. Theory Y Unlike in Theory X, starts from the assumption in Theory Y that people have different needs. In fact, when the proper motivations and rewards are in place, employees are not only willing but purposely driven to seek out responsibility and challenges on their own. Therefore, there was less need for individuals to have a say in decisions concerning the work process. Theory X believes that employees are inherently lazy and without constant supervision, they will not complete their work. Does effective unit performance result from the task-organization fit or from higher motivation, or perhaps from both? Douglas McGregor expressed his views of human nature in two sets of assumptions.
Control Tight Lenient Authority Centralized Decentralized Self motivation Absent Present Focuses on Psychological needs and Security needs Social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. On the basis of above assumptions, it is concluded that the management is held responsible for organising resources, for the firm, with the aim of economic gain. That is, each approach is effective in some cases but not in others. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, in a Theory X environment it may be the only way. So, unless it explicitly says otherwise, you should complete the exam under the assumption that a project manager trusts his team members to complete their work independently. Furthermore, their tasks and how these should executed must be laid down in detail. And this is really the essence of managing upwards X theory managers - focus and get agreement on the results and deadlines - if you consistently deliver, you'll increasingly be given more leeway on how you go about the tasks, which amounts to more freedom.