For each perspective, you should understand the basis of the viewpoint, as well as the application to a psychological situation. Constructivism proposes the idea that the learner constructs, rather than absorbs, knowledge from his or her experiences. Learning involves gradual and ongoing changes throughout the lifespan. Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person's motive. It is one of the most cost-effective ways to extend life and fulfills my bigger mission to spread healthy habits and help others realize their full potential. Eventually, the lab coat alone elicited a salivation response from the dogs.
They associated the bell with the gratification that comes with eating. Among other drives considered by some theorists to be learned are the need for affiliation that is, to belong, to have companionship , the need for security money , and the need for achievement. But from both sides of the spectrum began to realize that both methods have value in treating patients, giving birth to a combined cognitive-behavioral therapy. Biological Perspective To understand what the biological perspective also known as the neuroscience perspective is all about, you simply have to look at the name. For example, metacognition—a concept created by cognitive psychologists and employed by modern educators—aids students in evaluating their personal knowledge and in applying strategies for improving their knowledge in their weakest school subjects.
Subjects covered in this type of program can include aging, memory, neurodegenerative diseases, addiction, stress, brain plasticity, perception and impulsivity. You may be interested in behavioral disorder and substance abuse counseling, which are the most closely related to behavioral psychology. Biological psychologists explain behaviors in neurological terms, i. There are many different versions of this concept as proposed by different individuals. Cognitive Perspective Unlike the behavioral perspective, the cognitive perspective as you would guess is all about our cognitive processes. More specifically, by forming an association between a certain behavior and the consequences of that behavior, you learn.
Learners must associate their response with a stimulus. For each perspective, you should understand the basis of the viewpoint, as well as the application to a psychological situation. Developmental psychology is the perspective that studies change that occurs in learners over the course of a long period of time. Attempts are made to influence academic performance of a student by means of such behavioral modifications. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.
Some suggest that the popularity of behavioral psychology grew out of the desire to establish psychology as an objective and measurable science. The motor modules that affect behavior are also considered. A psychologist who follows this perspective would look at introverted behavior as a result of genetics and biological processes, or past unrealized experiences, or social-cultural norms, or a combination of all three. Now that's a more optimistic way to view personality and behavior, isn't it? Evolutionary Psychology A central claim of evolutionary psychology is that the brain and therefore the mind evolved to solve problems encountered by our hunter-gatherer ancestors during the upper Pleistocene period over 10,000 years ago. The humanistic perspective centers on the view that each person is unique and individual, and has the free will to change at any time in his or her lives. To continue researching, browse degree options below for course curriculum, prerequisites and financial aid information.
The research on cognition led to the above-mentioned shift in the methodology used in psychotherapy from a strictly behaviorist-based orientation to a more balanced approach that includes cognitive therapy. His initiative was soon followed by other European and American Universities. If you want to look into any of the perspectives further, click on the links in each section of this article. Behaviorists explain actions as learned behavior due to past conditioning operant or classical. He is considered to be a Radical Behaviorist because of this belief, although nowadays it is believed that both internal and external stimuli influence our behavior. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people and animals as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life.
Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units. In this case, the black box is said to have elicited the learned drive of fear. A school of psychology that explains all mental and physical in terms of by glands and muscles to stimuli. Skinner investigated of voluntary and involuntary behavior. The classical conditioning process works by developing an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Fear or anxiety , for example, is often considered a secondary drive that can be learned through either classical or operant conditioning.
Perhaps its most useful purpose is in correcting behavioral problems in children and young adults, particularly in those who are in trouble with the law. If this conflict is not resolved, we tend to use to reduce our anxiety. Systematic Desensitization is gradually exposing phobic patients to their phobias until they overcome them. We have the innate i. Maria Montessori was a constructivist psychologist known for her educational philosophy The major constructivist psychologists you should be familiar with are John Dewey; Maria Montessori, best known for her philosophy of education and schools; David Kolb, known for experiential learning; and Ernst von Glasersfeld, known for his model of radical constructivism.
It is based on the fact that all living organisms have physiological needs that must be satisfied for survival for example, the need for food, water, sleep, and so forth to maintain a state of homeostasis, that is, a steady internal state. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language. It is dynamic, but eclectic in choice. In other words, as we learn, we alter the way we perceive our environment, the way we interpret the incoming stimuli, and therefore the way we interact, or behave. Psychology was institutionalized as a science in 1879 by , who found the first psychological laboratory.
As a result, the child will become more likely to clean up messes. Here are some common techniques used: Chaining breaks a task down into its component parts and then teaches the simplest component first. It is an extremely and typically uses lab experiments to study human behavior. Two of the most influential and enduring theories in humanistic psychology that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s are those of and. One of the best examples of behaviorism is that of experiments conducted on dogs by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov in the field of classical conditioning. Techniques that may be applied include cognitive restructuring, behavioral modeling and, most commonly, classical and operant conditioning.